Effects of water deficit stress on physiological and biochemical traits of sugar beet genotypes (Beta vulgaris L.)

Document Type : Scientific - Research


1 Former PhD student of Agronomy, Sari University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Sarai, Iran.

2 Associate professor of Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sari University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Sarai, Iran.

3 Associate Professor of Sugar Beet Seed Institute (SBSI) - Agricultural Research Education and Extension, Karaj,Iran


In order to evaluate the physiological and biochemical aspects of water deficit stress on six sugar beet genotypes, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with eight replications was carried out under greenhouse condition at Sugar Beet Seed Institute, Karaj, Iran, in 2015. Irrigation included two levels (normal irrigation and water deficit stress). Irrigation was equally applied to the both levels from sowing up to plant establishment after which irrigation in the water stress condition was done on the basis of stress symptoms appearance. Results showed that water deficit stress significantly decreased relative water content, root dry weight and water use efficiency and increased specific leaf weight, electrolyte leakage, leaf chlorophyll content, proline and betaine content. Chlorophyll and proline contents, root dry weight and root dry weight and water use efficiency were significantly influenced by genotype. The genotype by water treatment interaction was significant only for proline content and root dry weight. Electrolyte leakage, as a measure of cell membrane stability, was increased from 5242.58 µs.m-1 in normal condition to 941.21 µs.m-1 in water stress condition. The leaf chlorophyll content was increased in water stress condition. The highest and lowest chlorophyll content was observed in genotypes 1 (drought tolerant check) and 5 (PB13-S2-52.HSF-977), respectively. The highest proline content in water stress condition was observed in genotype 6 (PB13-S2-52.HSF-987), whereas the lowest value was observed in genotypes 3 (PB13-S2-37.153.80.HSF–1007) and 1. It seems that root dry weight, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll and betaine contents could be considered to initially screen the sugar beet genotypes for tolerance to water deficit stress.


Ambika Rajendran R, Muthiah AR, Manickam A, Shanmugasundaram P, Joel AJ. Indices of drought tolerance in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) genotypes at early stages of plant growth. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 2011; 7: 42-46.
Azizpour K, Shakiba MR, Khosh Kholg Sima NA, Alyari H, Mogaddam M, Esfandiari E,  Pessarakli M. Physiological response of spring durum wheat genotypes to salinity. J. Plant Nutr. 2010; 33: 859-873.
Baiat H, Mardani H, Arooei H, Selahvarzi Y. Effect of Salisilic acid on morphophysiological traits of seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Super Dominus) under drought stress condition. Journal of Plant Production Research. 2011; 18(3): 63-67.
Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID. Rapid determination of free proline for waterstress studies. Plant Soil. 1973; 39: 205-207.
Blum A, Ebercon A. Genotypic response in Sorghum to drought stress, free prolin accumulation and drought resistance, Crop Science.1976; 16: 428-431.
Cattivelli L, Rizza F, Badeck FW, Mazzucotelli E, Mastrangelo AM, Francia E, Mare C, Tondelli A, Stanca AM. Drought tolerance improvement in crop plants: An integrated view from breeding to genomics. Field Crops Res. 2008. 105: 1-14.
Cecile B, Patrick C, Chavargieff P. Light stress and oxidative cell damage inphotoautotrophic cell suspension of Euphorbia characias. Plant Physiology. 1994; 106: 941-946.
Farooq M, Wahid A, Kobayashi N, Fujita D, Basra SMA. Plant drought stress: Effects, mechanisms and management. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2009; 29: 185-212.
Gorham J, Jokinen K, Malik MNA, Khan IA. Glycine betaine treatmentimproves cotton yields in field trials in Pakistan. Proceedings of the World Cotton ResearchConference II, Athens, Greece. 2000.
Hashemi GR, Farnia A, Rahnamaeian M, Shaban M. Changes in carbohydrates and sugar yield in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under different biofertilizers and irrigation closed time, International Journal of Advanced and Biomedical Research. 2014; 2 (8), 2350-2355.
Heuer B. Osmoregulatory role of proline in water and salt stressed plants. In:Pessarakli M,editor. Handbook of plant and crop stress. Marcel Dekker Inc, USA.1993; 363-379.
Ilikaei MN, Habibi D, Foroozesh P, Taleghani DF, Rajabi A, Orojnia S, Davoodifar M. Study on quantitative and qualitative traits of different sugar beet genotypes under drought stress condition. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding. 2012; 8(4): 127-144.
Inze D, Van Montagu M. Oxidative stress in plants. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 1995; 6: 153-158.
Iqbal S, Bano A. Water stress induced changes in antioxidant enzymes, membrane stability and seed protein profile of different wheat accessions. Afrcan. J. Biotechnol. 2009; 8: 6576-6587.
Kheirkhah M, Farazi M, Dadkhah ER, Khoshnood Yazdi A. Use of Glycine, Tiofol and Salycilic acid in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under water deficit conditions. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 2016; 10(1): 167-182.
Layegh Khodyeki SHE, Lahooti M, Abbassi F. Comparative study on effect of drought stress on the rate of proline changes in Salvia leriifolia in soil culture medium and In-vitro. Journal of Biosciences. 2010; 12(4): 105-115.
Li RH, Guo PG, Michael B, Stefania G, Salvatore C. Evaluation of chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters as indicators of drought tolerance in barley. Agric. Sci. China. 2006; 5: 751-757.
Loreto F, Velikova V. Isoprene produced by leaves protects the photosynthetic apparatus against ozone damage, quenches ozone products, and reduces lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes. Plant Physiology. 2001; 127:1781-1787.
Mamnouei A, Seyedsharifi R. Study on effect of water deficit on chlorophyll fluoresense and proline content in six barley genotypes and its relation with canopy temperature and yield. Plant Biology. 2010; 2(5): 51-62.
Masoumi E, Kafi M, Nabati J, Khazaei HR, Davari K, Zare Mehrjerdi M. Effect of drought stress on leaf water status and electrolyte leakage, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluoresense at different growth stages of two Koshia (Kochia scoparia) populations under salt stress condition Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 2012; 10(3): 476-484.
Meloni DA, Oliva MA, Martinez CA, Cambraia J. Photosynthesis and activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase in cotton under salt stress. Environ. Exp. Bot. 2003; 49: 69-76.
Mohammadian R, Khoyi FR, Rahimian H, Moghaddam M, Ghassemi-GolezaniK, Sadeghian SY. The effect of early season drought on stomatal conductance, leaf-air temperature difference and proline accumulation in sugar beet genotypes. J. Agri. Sci. Techno. 2001; 3: 181-193.
Moussa HR. Influence of exogenous application of silicon on physiological response of salt stressed Maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 2006; 8 (2): 293-297.
Ober ES, Luterbacher MC. Genotypic variation for drought tolerance in Beta vulgaris. Annals of Botany. 2002; 89: 917-924.
Ober ES, Bloa, ML, Clark CJA, Royal A, Jaggard KW, Pidgeon JD. Evaluation of physiological traits as indirect selection criteria for drought tolerance in sugar beet. Field Crops Research. 2005; 91:231-249.
Ojani S, Habibi D, Taleghani DF, Safari Dolatabadi SA, Pazooki S, Moazeni M, Rahimi R, Farshidi M. Evaluation of yield and yield components of sugar beet genotypes under drought stress condition. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding. 2012; 8(1): 127-144.
Ommen OE, Donnelly A, Vanhoutvin S, Vanoijen M, Manderscheid R. Chlorophyll content of spring wheat flag leaves grown under elevated CO2 concentration and other environmental stress within `ESPACE-Wheat` project. Euro. J. Agron.1999; 10: 197-203.
Pedrol N, Ramos P, Riegosa MJ.Phenotypic plasticity and acclimation to water deficits in velvet-grass: a long-term greenhouse experiment. Changes in leaf morphology, photosynthesis and stress-induced metabolites. Plant Physiology. 2000; 157: 383-393.
Peymaneh Z, Zarei M, Ronaghi A.H. Effect of Glomus musei fungus on root dry matter yield, proline, protein and nitrogen uptake in the root of Raflemon and sour orange under drought stress condition. First National Conferenece on Approaches to Achieve Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment. 2013; 1-5.
Pourmusavi SM, Galvi M, Daneshian J. Effect of manure on cell membraine stability and chlorophyll content of soybean in drought stress condition. 2006. Proceedings of the 9th Iranian Agronomy and Breeding Sciences Congress, Aboureihan Campus, University of Tehran.
Rajabi A, Ranji Z, Ahmadi M, Khorshid, AM. Management of drought stress in sugar beet. In: Taleghani DF, Sadeghzadeh Hemayati S, Mesbah M, editors. Strategic Framework for Sugar Beet Research. 2013; 127-134.
Sayfzadeh S, Rashidi M. Response of antioxidant enzymes activities of Sugar Beet to drought stress. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 2011; 6(4):27-33.
Schonfeld MA, Johnson RC, Carver BF, Mornhinweg DW. Water relation in winter wheat as drought resistance indicators. Crop Science. 1988; 28:526-531.
Shaw B, Thomas TH, Cooke DT. Responses of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) to drought and nutrient deficiency stress, Plant Growth Regulation. 2002;37:77–83.
Shiferaw B, Baker DA. An evaluation of drought screening techniques for Eragrostis tef. Tropical Science. 1996; 36: 74-85.
Sodaeizadeh H, Shamasaei M, Tajamolian M, Mirmohammadi Meibodi SEM, Hakimzadeh ME. Study on effect of drought stress on some morphophysiological traits of savory (Satureja hortensis). Journal of Plant Process and Function. 2016; 5(15): 1-12.
Soltani Gardfaramarzi MK, Omidi H, Habibi H, Lebschi MH, Zarezadeh E. Study on effects of different rates of glycine-betaine on morphological traits and yield of chamomile varieties (Matricaria chamomila L.) under drought stress in Yazd, Iran. Journal of Iranian Aromatic and Medicinal Plants Research. 2011; 27(2); 289-297.
Stewart BA, Musick JT, Dusek DA. Yield and water use efficiency of grain Sorghum in a limited irrigation_dryland farming system. Agronomy Journal. 1983; 75: 629-634.
Taleghani DF, Mohammadian R, Sadeghzadeh Hemayati S. Autumn sugar beet, Guidelines for sowing, husbandry and harvest. Agriculture Research, Education and Extension Organization, Sugar Beet Seed Institute, Karaj, Iran. 2014; 89 pp.
Teimoori M, Abdollahi Maivan M, Nezhadhassan B, Geraei P. Study of drought index pattern in Iran. First National Conference of Drought and Climate Change. Research Center for Water Shrotage and Drought in Agriculture and Natural Resources, Iran. 2011; 883-888.
Yadava U. A rapid and nondestructive method to determine chlorophyll in intact leaves. Horticulture Science. 1989; 21: 1449-1450.
Zare Mehrjerdi M, Bagheri EA, Bahrami AR, Nabati J, Masoumi E. Effect of Drought stress on photosynthetic characters, phenolic compounds and capacity of suppression of reactive radicals in different cheackpea genotypes (CicerarietinumL.) in hydoponic culture. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse Cultures. 2012; 3(12): 59-76.
Zarei M, Peymaneh Z, Ronaghi EH, Kamgar Hghighi EA, Shahsavar ER. Effect of Mycoriza arbuscular fungus on growth and physiological parameters of Raflemon root-stock under water stress condition. Journal of Water and Soil (Agricultural Sciences and Indusctries). 2013; 27(3): 485-494.